Vata or air means movement in the universe. Vata is responsible for all the movements. Vata molecules are light, minute, clear, rough and dry. They are always mobile and move in all directions. They quickly spread throughout the body. Vata is cold in nature and causes the diseases related to cold. Because of its minute nature, it cannot be visualized in any form in the body but its presence can be proved by its actions. It is the electricity, setting the organism into motion, marinating the equilibrium between Pitta and Kapha (inerts). It is the sole power to control all the movements of nerves, tissues, cells and systems.
Vata may be understood as nerve force, electro motor, physical activity or that which is responsible for motion. It controls the actions of the prefrontal lobe, motor cortex and spinal cord. It carries all the sensory impulses to their centers and also maintains the efficiency of the sense organs. Vata has five divisions or responsibilities in the body, which exist in the different parts of the body.
Pitta represents energy or heat (Calorie) in the body. Further, Pitta is the combination of energy (heat) and liquid. Heat is the active principle whereas liquid acts as a vehicle. Life on earth depends on energy derived from the Sun. Digestion entirely depends on Pitta (Agni). The process of digestion continues in the gastro-intestinal tract and in the tissues by means of various digestive and tissue enzymes (known as Pitta).
The Biological element of Kapha is derived from the two basic physical elements namely earth and water. Kapha molecules are heavy, stable, smooth, soft, viscous, shiny and moist, white in color and predominantly have a sweet and slightly salty taste. Kapha constitutes the main body mass and is responsible for the shape and form of the body. Kapha fills the intercellular spaces of the body as connective tissues including mucus, synovial fluids and tendons. All the cells, tissues and organs of the body are predominantly composed of Kapha elements.